What Happens if Lien Foreclosure Sale Proceeds Not Enough?

In many cases, the proceeds from a stock breeder's or stable keeper's lien foreclosure sale will not be enough to satisfy your debt.  In those cases, you may sue the owner for the deficiency, if any.

The law suit may not be worth it, however, as you could end up spending more on legal fees than you are owed. For these reasons, I recommend that everyone who takes a horse to be boarded or bred obtain a written contract providing an agreement for the customer to pay for your services as well as the services of third parties for their horse's care while in your possession. 

Ideally, the agreement would include either 1) credit card information from the customer and an agreement that it will be charged for your services; or 2) the customer’s agreement that you may sell their horse at a public or private sale without notice to them if their account is in arrears more than 30 days.

This is especially important for farriers and veterinarians, as Texas law does not provide them any statutory lien to secure payment for their services.

What is a "Public Sale" as Referenced in Texas Lien Statutes?

The law is vague as to what, specifically, constitutes a “public sale” as referenced in the stock breeder’s and stable keeper’s lien statutes. This clearly would not include a sale by private treaty to a third party without the possibility of others bidding on the horse. If you are foreclosing on either the stock breeder’s or stable keeper’s lien, the safest thing to do is to put the horse, upon proper notice to the debtor, in a horse or livestock auction that is being held in your area. You could also hold your own auction, provided that you provide sufficient public notice (i.e. put information about your sale in the “notices” section of the local newspaper or on the designated area of the courthouse steps in your county) so that the public may show up to bid on the horse.

Transfer of Jockey Club Papers after Lien Foreclosure Sale

When you sell a registered Thoroughbred in a valid foreclosure sale, you may or may not be able to obtain the Certificate of Foal Registration (i.e. the “Jockey Club papers”) from the original owner. In either case, pursuant to Rule 9 of the Jockey Club’s American Stud Book, you or the buyer must provide the Jockey Club with the following items in order to have the horses’ papers transferred to your name or the buyer’s name:

1) A check or money order payable to The Jockey Club covering the fee for Duplicate Certificate of Foal Registration;

2) A set of four color photographs of the horse (front, both sides, and rear views) clearly showing the color, and the markings (or lack of markings) on the head, legs and body;

3) A completed and signed Duplicate Certificate Form containing the written description of the markings on the horse, including the exact location of the head and neck cowlicks;

4) Proof of ownership of that specific horse (for example, a bill of sale or canceled check including the name or pedigree of the horse, date of sale and the name of the new owner);

5) An opinion from an attorney, indicating that the sale was conducted in accordance with the laws of the state; and

6) Any further evidence and assurances as The Jockey Club may require, such as genetic typing, parentage verification, or information regarding the circumstances and validity of the sale.

More information, including the American Stud Book rules discussed above, can be found on the Jockey Club’s website.

For instructions on transferring ownership of a registered Appaloosa, go to the APHA's website. 

How to Enforce Texas Stable Keeper's Lien

Fortunately, unlike many states, Texas does not require lien holders to file suit or involve the courts in order to enforce the stable keeper's lien—provided the enforcement provisions in the statute are precisely followed.

If you are boarding someone else’s horse, the board bill is 60 days or more past due, and you still have possession of the horse, you have an enforceable stable keeper’s lien under Section 70.003 of the Texas Property Code and may sell the horse in a public sale to satisfy the debt.   In order to enforce a stable keeper’s lien, you must follow the following steps:

STEP 1

If the owner’s residence is not in Texas or not known, you do not need to send the notices set forth in Step 1 and Step 2 below. You may sell the horse at a public sale without notice to the owner—provided the board bill is at least 60 days’ past due and you have possession of the horse. Still, it is advisable that you keep some proof that you billed the customer and they did not remit payment before proceeding with the sale.

If the owner’s residence is in Texas and known, you start the lien enforcement process by sending a demand for payment by certified mail and regular mail to the owner’s last known address.  Form Demand Letter.

STEP 2

If the owner does not pay the amount owed before the 11th day after the date you sent the demand letter referenced above, send out a notice of sale by certified mail and regular mail to the owner’s last known address.  Form Notice of Sale.

STEP 3

Sell the horse at a public sale 20 or more days after you send the notice referenced in Step 2.   

Note: If you are fortunate enough to get more for the horse at auction than you are owed, you must pay the overage to the owner. If the owner has moved out of Texas or its residence is unknown, you must pay the overage to the county treasurer of the county in which you boarded the horse.

Remember—the stable keeper’s lien is a possessory lien. This means that if you give the horse back to the owner before the bill is paid, the stable keeper’s lien is, practically speaking, no longer enforceable. In that case, you will need to file suit against the debtor to collect the unpaid board. This is why it is essential to obtain a written board agreement from every customer that contains the date you started boarding the horse, sets forth your fee for board, and includes an agreement that your customer will pay out-of-pocket expenses for care such as worming, farrier, supplements, and vet work.

Transfer of Horse's Papers After Lien Sale

When you sell a horse at a lien foreclosure sale, you will want to transfer its registration papers into the name of the buyer at auction, whether that be you or a third party.  Most breed registries have policies and procedures relating to horses purchased in a lien foreclosure. Depending on the breed registry, you will be asked to provide certain items such as a notarized affidavit stating that the stableman has complied with the law relating to the foreclosure; a copy of the written notice of the foreclosure sale; a copy of the statute by which the foreclosure was conducted; and a notarized bill of sale from the stableman. If you can provide all of the items requested by the breed registry, you will most likely be able to get the horse’s papers transferred into your name.

Overview of Texas Stable Keeper's Lien

Texas law provides liens for two specific types of services provided to horse owners: boarding services (the stable keeper's lien) and breeding services (the stock breeder’s lien).   This blog provides an overview of the stable keeper's lien.

How does a stable keeper's lien work? The Texas stable keeper's lien, also known as an “agister’s lien,” is a possessory lien that applies when one person takes care of horses or other livestock of another by providing board or pasture for the horse or other livestock. If you run a stable or keep other people’s horses on your land or land you are leasing, you may keep possession of the horse until your board bill is paid by the horse owner. If the nonpayment persists, you can have the horse sold to collect the amount owed.

How do I foreclose on a stable keeper's lien? Your foreclosure has to comply with Section 70.005 of the Texas Property Code. Under that section, you must: 1) have possession of the horse for 60 days after the date the charges accrue; 2) make a written request to the owner to pay the unpaid bill; and 3) if the charges are not paid on or before the 11th day after you made demand for payment, you may sell the horse at public auction after giving the horse owner 20 days’ written notice.

What if someone is interested in buying the horse? Can I sell it to them or does it have to be sold at an auction? Texas law provides that you must sell the horse at a public sale. This is to prevent boarding facilities from selling a horse worth a lot of money to a friend for much less than the horse is worth, just to satisfy the debt. To get around the public auction requirement, boarding facilities can draft clauses into their boarding agreements allowing them to sell to horse by private treaty. The boarding contract may also provide for interest and late fees for past-due board.

My boarder left a lot of tack at my barn and did not pay their board. Can I keep or sell the tack to satisfy the bill? No. The stable keeper's lien only covers the horse itself. Boarding facilities may not hold tack or other equipment as security for payment of past-due board. Again, a boarding facility may draft a clause into their boarding agreement allowing them to keep or sell tack or other equipment belonging to a boarder who does not pay their bill.

This entry only addresses the current law in Texas.  The University of Vermont's website, Equine Law and Horsemanship Safety, provides a list of agister's lien statutes in other states
(scroll to bottom to find your state).