Last Friday, the Supreme Court of Texas denied Brenda Young’s petition for review. The 14th Court of Appeals’ holding that Chapter 87 can immunize defendants against suits brought by independent contractors will stand. 

The Court’s notice regarding the denial of the petition for review can be downloaded here.

The Supreme Court did not give a reason for denying the petition. One reason could have been that the Court found no reversible error in the 14th Court’s opinion. As such, the denial may be yet another indication that the Supreme Court agrees with me and other practitioners who believe Chapter 87 applies to suits brought by workers (both independent contractors and employees), subject to its exceptions.

As far as I know, no court of last resort in any state has ever taken up the issue of whether an equine or farm animal immunity statute applies to suits brought by workers.

Related Posts:

Young v. McKim Appealed to Supreme Court of Texas

Texas Supreme Court May Be Inclined to Grant Chapter 87 Immunity to Employers

Another Appellate Court Holds Chapter 87 Immunity Act Applies to Suits Brought by Independent Contractors

Yesterday, counsel for Brenda Young filed a petition for review of the 14th Court of Appeals’ decision discussed in this prior post.  This will be the first time the high court has ever been given the opportunity to decide whether or not Chapter 87 immunity applies to claims brought by workers.

A copy of Young’s petition can be downloaded here.

In her petition, Young contends that the 14th Court of Appeals committed error in holding that:

1.  non-consumers of equine activities (i.e. people who are paid to work around horses) qualify as participants under Chapter 87; and

2.  the posting of warning signs under Chapter 87 was a defense and not an element of proof (i.e. Young asserts that the McKims had the burden of proving that they had posted the Chapter 87 warning signs in order to be afforded immunity under Chapter 87, and that they did not meet that burden).

While I agree with the 14th Court of Appeals’ decision and do not wish to see it reversed, I am pleased that the Supreme Court now has an opportunity to review whether or not Chapter 87 applies to claims brought by employees or other workers.  This issue is currently somewhat “murky” under Texas law.  Clarification is needed because there seems to be a conflict of authority on this issue among the intermediate courts of appeals.  In that respect, I am pleased that Young requested review of the first issue discussed above.

Related posts:

Update on Young v. McKim

Another Appellate Court Holds Chapter 87 Immunity Act Applies to Suits Brought by Independent Contractors

Texas Supreme Court May Be Inclined to Grant Chapter 87 Immunity to Employers

As we discussed in this prior post, the Supreme Court of Texas has not yet addressed the issue of whether Chapter 87 of the Texas Civil Practice & Remedies Code (the “Act”) shields defendants from liability in suits where employees or independent contractors are injured while engaging in an equine activities. Up until last week, we only had two opinions—both from intermediate appellate courts—addressing this issue. 

In the first case—Johnson v. Smith (Corpus Christi 2002)—the court held that independent contractors were participants under the Act, and therefore the Act shielded defendants in suits brought by independent contractors from liability. In the second case—Dodge v. Durdin (Houston [1st] 2005)—the court held that employees are not participants under the Act, and therefore defendants in suits brought by employees are not immune from liability.

As of last Thursday, we now have a third appellate case that sheds light on this issue. The Fourteenth Court of Appeals in Houston recently held that the Act immunizes defendants from liability for claims brought by independent contractors.

The case, styled Young v. McKim, represents the first equine employee negligence suit addressed by a Texas court of appeals since Loftin v. Lee was handed down by the Texas Supreme Court in April of 2011. 

Case Background: Brenda Young had posted a flyer at Ravensway Stables advertising her ability to assist owners in the care of their horses. Tisa McKim and her daughter, Jackie, hired Young to care for their horses—Jasper and Butch—at Ravensway. 

About two months after Young started caring for Jasper (a rescue horse), Jasper kicked Young and injured her. The injury occurred while Young was talking to another boarder at Ravensway while Jasper grazed beside her.

Young sued the McKims for negligence, and the McKims moved for summary judgment under the version of the Act in existence in 2010 (i.e. before the Act was amended in 2011). The trial court granted the McKims’ motion for summary judgment. 

The Appeal: The Fourteenth Court of Appeals affirmed the trial court’s summary judgment in favor of the McKims. On appeal, Young alleged that the Act did not shield the McKims from liability.  Among the reasons Young gave were 1) only “tourists and other consumers of equine activities” qualify as participants under the Act; and 2) Young was an employee of the McKims, not an independent contractor.  Young relied heavily on the First Court of Appeals’ opinion in Dodge on appeal.

The Fourteenth Court of Appeals determined that Young was an independent contractor, not an employee.  The court did not reach the issue of whether the Act would have applied had Young been an employee. The Fourteenth Court disagreed with the discussion in Dodge suggesting that the Act only applied to “tourists and other consumers of equine activities.”

Citing Loftin, the Fourteenth Court held,

“The Equine Act is a comprehensive limitation of liability for equine activities of all kinds…The Equine Act applies to all ‘participants’”. [Emphasis supplied].

It remains to be seen whether Young will be appealed to the Supreme Court of Texas. Given the Supreme Court’s expansive view of the Act set forth in Loftin, the Supreme Court might disagree with Dodge’s holding that the Act does not apply to employees.

Case Information:  Young v. McKim, No. 14-11-00376-CV, 2012 WL 1951099 (Tex. App.—Houston [14th] May 31, 2012, no pet h.).

Related Posts:

Are Employers Immune from Liability for Employees’ Horse-Related Injuries in Texas?

Victory for Horse Industry in Texas Supreme Court

Does Your Farm Need to Purchase Worker’s Compensation Insurance?

Time to Get New Warning Signs: Equine Activity Act Amended in 2011